Flexible, Affordable Electronics Education
Online courses and webinars for the printed circuit engineering community.

Fabrication Processes

Speaker  :  
Michael R. Creeden
Company : 
CID+, Insulectro

This presentation will offer a complete view of place-and-route for dense high-speed and RF circuits. We will cover a wide range of topics, including next-generation materials, the rational for considering HDI for our products, and overall layout flow. We will discuss the technological challenges we face in both the schematic circuit rules capture, design layout and manufacturing process. Students will learn what it takes to satisfy solvability, high-speed concerns, and RF performance issues, while building a board that will be cost-effective as a reliable high-yield product. We will also review how our early integration with the manufacturing team during the design cycle will help us understand the specifics to build a product that is correct-by-construction and performs on revision-1. The focus will be on practical application and implementation using real-world examples.

Speaker  :  
Mark J. Hughes and Elijah Gracia
Company : 
Royal Circuit Solutions

Engineers are often only peripherally aware of the PCB fabrication and assembly process, and often make design decisions that increase cost and turn-time or decrease reliability. This presentation provides a manufacturer’s perspective of design decisions that result in holds and cost increases using examples from the past 15 years in the industry. By gaining a better understanding of how manufacture and assembly processes work, engineers will be able to design printed circuit boards that cost less and have greater longevity than their current designs.

This presentation will be split into two parts: First, we will briefly cover all phases of the manufacturing process as we follow a board from digital submission to customer delivery. Second, we will look at multiple examples of actual customer submissions and analyze them for design decisions that result in unnecessary cost increases or unnecessary holds. The presentation will conclude with a 15-minute question and answer session that allows engineers to ask questions about their designs.

Speaker  :  
Gary Ferrari

Millions of dollars’ worth of PWBs are scrapped each year due to tolerance errors in the final product. A good majority of these errors are due to incorrect tolerancing of holes, edges and other board features. This seminar will explain how GD&T can help you avoid high scrap rates and reduce overall cost due to improper dimensional tolerances. It will show how to apply GD&T to printed wiring boards without all the confusion found in complex mechanical objects such as gear trains and castings. The principles discussed follow the ASME Y14.5 standard, as well as IPC-2615, Printed Board Dimensions and Tolerances. Attendees will learn GD&T principles for printed wiring boards, appropriate symbology for drawings, and bilateral vs. geometric dimensioning.

Speaker  :  
Paul Cooke
Company : 
AGC Nelco – Taconic

With ever-decreasing geometries and increased density, today’s PCBs are extremely complex. Fabricators are continually under pressure to keep up with the capabilities needed to produce these types of products. This seminar looks at how a PCB is fabricated and the challenges the fabricator faces to achieve the design intent and meet customer and industry standards. We will examine the processes needed to form microvias, image [U]BGAs, plate copper in holes the thickness of a human hair and select surface finishes needed for very tight pitch components. The half-day seminar will be interactive with the audience to ensure all questions related to more in-depth PCB fabrication and processes are answered.

Speaker  :  
Phil Marcoux
Company : 
PPM Associates

In recent years heterogeneous assembly has grown in interest as a possible replacement for SMT assembly and as a solution for reducing the area needed for complex electronic devices. Heterogeneous devices combine packed devices, unpackaged devices, bare chips, chiplets, deposits, components and intricate substrate materials and designs. In some cases heterogeneous devices are more economical and offer faster time to market and lower product costs than custom and semi-custom integrated circuits.

The successful design, procurement, and manufacturing of a heterogeneous product is exacting, requiring the interaction of multiple vendors, marginally adequate design and testing tools, and often reluctant component vendors. For those designers and product managers willing to understand and endure the road to product completion, the rewards can be great. Missteps can be career-limiting.

This seminar will cover the basic and advanced assembly options, component variations, and common substrate types. It will review the latest changes to the Heterogeneous Integration Roadmap (HIR) developed by the multi-standards organizations.

Speaker  :  
Vern Solberg
Company : 
Solberg Technical Consulting

Flex circuits typically replace the common hard-wire interface between electronic assemblies. Flexible circuits, however, have significant advantages over the hard-wired alternative because they fit only one way, eliminate wire routing errors, and save up to 75% on space and weight. The design guidelines for flexible circuits, although similar to rigid circuits, are somewhat unique. In essence, flex circuits furnish unlimited freedom of packaging geometry, while retaining the precision density and repeatability of printed circuits. Because the flex-circuit conductor patterns can maintain uniform electrical characteristics, they contribute to controlling noise, crosstalk, and impedance. Flex circuits will often be designed to replace complex wire harness assemblies and connectors to further improve product reliability. During the half-day tutorial program, participants will have an opportunity to review and discuss the latest revision of IPC-2222 and IPC-2223, “Sectional Design Standard for Flexible Printed Boards,” that includes base material sets, alternative fabrication methodologies and SMT-on-flex assembly processes. The workshop will also furnish practical flex circuit supplier DfM recommendations for ensuring quality, reliability and manufacturing efficiency. Topics of discussion: 1. Applications and use environment (commercial/consumer, industrial/automotive, medical/aerospace); establishing end-use criteria 2. Designing flexible and rigid-flex circuits (flex circuit outline planning; circuit routing and interconnect methodologies; fold and bend requirements; SMT land pattern reinforcement criteria). 3. Material and SMT components (IPC standards for flex and rigid-flex dielectrics; base material and metallization technologies; selection criteria for SMT components; SMT land pattern development). 4. Assembly processing of flex and rigid-flex circuits (dimensioning and tolerance criteria; palletized layout for inline assembly processing; SMT assembly process variations and methodologies, alternative joining methods for flexible circuits).

With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal integrity. The power delivery system must deliver power to devices at frequencies from D to hundreds of megahertz. The application notes that accompany most ICs do not contain adequate information to allow a designer to get the PDS correctly designed.

This course is aimed at providing the information needed to get the job done right. It draws on the speaker’s experience designing hundreds of power delivery systems for products ranging from satellites to super computers. It contains a very large number of test PCBs used to determine how well each component will perform when used in a PDS.

Speaker  :  
Mark Finstad, Nick Koop
Company : 
Flexible Circuit Technologies, TTM Technologies

This course will cover the entire gamut of flexible and rigid-flex circuits from two of the most recognized names in the flexible circuit industry: Mark Finstad (co-chair of IPC-2223) and Nick Koop (co-chair of IPC-6013). Topics covered will include mechanical design/material selection, cost drivers, bending and forming concerns, testing, and issues unique to rigid-flex. This course also includes a complete virtual plant tour of a flexible circuit manufacturing facility to help attendees understand the manufacturing processes. Throughout the presentation, the instructors will share real-life stories of flexible circuit applications gained over 35+ years in the industry. Some are success stories, others not so much, but all provide excellent lessons learned. The instructors also welcome and encourage questions and enjoy wandering off-course with lively interactive discussions on specific topics from the class.

Speaker  :  
Robert Carter
Company : 
Oak-Mitsui Technologies
Large data transmission continues to increase annually due to live video streaming, cloud storage, PDA usage, IOT, and other technologies. Electronic devices are getting smaller yet required to...
Speaker  :  
Michael R. Creeden
Company : 
CID+, Insulectro
With this presentation, attendees will learn how materials matter in the 5G-world. From rigid laminates, copper styles and properties, flex materials, sintered paste OrMet for any-layer vias: all...
This comprehensive seminar of how to design a PCB stackup to optimize performance while attaining the lowest cost possible. With the advent of very high-speed signaling along with multiple very...
Speaker  :  
Daniel J. Smith
Company : 
Raytheon SAS
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
This half-day course is an overview (past, present, and future) of the interactions of processes, people and technologies involved in the complete lifecycle of a PCB design. This course is designed...
Speaker  :  
Vern Solberg
Company : 
Solberg Technical Consulting
Topics covered: 1. BGA/CSP process technologies and standards; single die BGA and FBGA packaging, flip-chip and die-size package technologies, wafer level packaging (WLP), fan-out wafer-level...
Speaker  :  
Bill Hargin
Company : 
Z-zero
The objective of this tutorial is to guide design teams through the process of evaluating and selecting the right laminate for a design, creating PCB stackups that meet the requirements of complex,...
Speaker  :  
Paul Cooke
Company : 
AGC-Nelco Taconic
This course will address advanced problem solving of printed wiring board defects. Some defects, such as interconnect separation, delamination, wedge voids, plating folds, micro-voids, surface...
With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal...
Speaker  :  
Robert Carter
Company : 
Oak-Mitsui Technologies
Large data transmission continues to increase annually due to live video streaming, cloud storage, PDA usage, IOT, and other technologies. Electronic devices are getting smaller yet required to...
Speaker  :  
Michael R. Creeden
Company : 
CID+, Insulectro
With this presentation, attendees will learn how materials matter in the 5G-world. From rigid laminates, copper styles and properties, flex materials, sintered paste OrMet for any-layer vias: all...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
Circuit boards for the IoT world (Internet of Things) are often driven by the need for low power dissipation, low cost (which drives very low layer count), moderate to high-density and mixed-signal...
Speaker  :  
Atar Mittal
Company : 
Sierra Circuits
Signal degradation on PCB transmission lines manifests in many forms: undershoot, overshoot, ringing, pulse shape distortion, switching noise, attenuation, ground bounce, skew, etc. All these can be...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
Differential pairs have been used in PC boards for years to carry high-speed serial and high-speed parallel data, in a variety of bus formats. Many board designers and engineers believe the rules...
This comprehensive seminar of how to design a PCB stackup to optimize performance while attaining the lowest cost possible. With the advent of very high-speed signaling along with multiple very...
Speaker  :  
Daniel J. Smith
Company : 
Raytheon SAS
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
This half-day course is an overview (past, present, and future) of the interactions of processes, people and technologies involved in the complete lifecycle of a PCB design. This course is designed...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
This session is intended for board designers to understand the things RF engineers request during PCB layout. Experienced RF engineers will likely not learn anything new from this course, as the...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates,
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
What is a wire? At high speeds, it behaves very differently from what we were taught in college. This presentation on high-speed basics makes the subject intuitive in a way that’s easily understood....
Speaker  :  
Ralf Bruening
Company : 
Zuken
Supply voltages decrease with every new silicon generation, contributing as well to the goal of reducing power consumption of our electronics. Coupled with the resulting shrinking noise margins for...
Speaker  :  
Dan Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
This presentation will present a simple EM physics and geometry-based approach to designing power distribution networks on PCBs. From input power connection to the IC die, the simple rules discussed...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
When time-varying (AC) signals travel in the transmission lines of a board, state-changing electric and magnetic fields are present. These fields, when not controlled, are the source of noise and...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
How do you design a high-speed digital circuit with enough bypass caps in the right area to supply all the peak power demands? You can’t listen to all the expert advice because it seems they can’t...
Speaker  :  
Jamie Pacamarra
Company : 
Analog Devices
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
When signals start to get affected by the physical characteristics of the PCB, things start to get a little tricky. A simple point-to-point connection won’t be enough to keep the integrity of the...
Speaker  :  
John Coonrod
Company : 
Rogers Corp.
Understanding millimeter-wave (mmWave) concepts can benefit RF designers, high-speed digital circuit designers and fabricators. In the RF industry, as frequency increases many circuit properties...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
The material presented will be focused on the physics of electromagnetic energy basic principles, presented in easy-to-understand language with plenty of diagrams. Attendees will discover how...
Speaker  :  
Eric Bogatin
Company : 
Teledyne LeCroy
A differential pair is any two transmission lines. When each transmission line has a return plane, its pretty clear how the differential impedance is related to the geometry. But what if there is no...
Speaker  :  
Bill Hargin
Company : 
Z-zero
The objective of this tutorial is to guide design teams through the process of evaluating and selecting the right laminate for a design, creating PCB stackups that meet the requirements of complex,...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
As most engineers and designers are aware, EMI occurs because some mechanical structure, within or attached to our system, is capable of resonating and radiating electromagnetic field energy. Those...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
Have you ever had a noise-sensitive circuit and tried to find the noise source? Even after you completely encased sensitive portions in all sorts of shielding, you still had noise? It’s very...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
Raise the shields, Scotty! Starting with some simple definitions for ESD/EOS, this session describes the important differences in the energy involved and the type of damage that can result. The...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
A step-by-step guideline for determining the PCB design requirements based on device energy consumption requirements. Wave cycle times and transmission line capacity form the basis of this...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
Power distribution in PCBs is the foundation around which all things work in the circuit. If this is not designed correctly, the entire circuit is at risk from noise and signal integrity issues, to...
Speaker  :  
Eric Bogatin
Company : 
Teledyne LeCroy
Some experts say you should never use a split ground plane. Others say you should use a split ground plane to control noise. When is the right time to split a ground plane? We will explore the...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
Tired of failing EMC certification over and over? Join the crowd. Shrinking IC geometries and a resulting increase in switching speeds make designing compliant printed circuit boards more...
With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal...
Speaker  :  
Robert Carter
Company : 
Oak-Mitsui Technologies
Large data transmission continues to increase annually due to live video streaming, cloud storage, PDA usage, IOT, and other technologies. Electronic devices are getting smaller yet required to...
Speaker  :  
Michael R. Creeden
Company : 
CID+, Insulectro
With this presentation, attendees will learn how materials matter in the 5G-world. From rigid laminates, copper styles and properties, flex materials, sintered paste OrMet for any-layer vias: all...
This comprehensive seminar of how to design a PCB stackup to optimize performance while attaining the lowest cost possible. With the advent of very high-speed signaling along with multiple very...
Speaker  :  
Vern Solberg
Company : 
Solberg Technical Consulting
Topics covered: 1. BGA/CSP process technologies and standards; single die BGA and FBGA packaging, flip-chip and die-size package technologies, wafer level packaging (WLP), fan-out wafer-level...
Speaker  :  
John Coonrod
Company : 
Rogers Corp.
Understanding millimeter-wave (mmWave) concepts can benefit RF designers, high-speed digital circuit designers and fabricators. In the RF industry, as frequency increases many circuit properties...
Speaker  :  
Bill Hargin
Company : 
Z-zero
The objective of this tutorial is to guide design teams through the process of evaluating and selecting the right laminate for a design, creating PCB stackups that meet the requirements of complex,...
Speaker  :  
Paul Cooke
Company : 
AGC-Nelco Taconic
This course will address advanced problem solving of printed wiring board defects. Some defects, such as interconnect separation, delamination, wedge voids, plating folds, micro-voids, surface...
With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal...
Speaker  :  
Robert Carter
Company : 
Oak-Mitsui Technologies
Large data transmission continues to increase annually due to live video streaming, cloud storage, PDA usage, IOT, and other technologies. Electronic devices are getting smaller yet required to...
Speaker  :  
Michael R. Creeden
Company : 
CID+, Insulectro
With this presentation, attendees will learn how materials matter in the 5G-world. From rigid laminates, copper styles and properties, flex materials, sintered paste OrMet for any-layer vias: all...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
Circuit boards for the IoT world (Internet of Things) are often driven by the need for low power dissipation, low cost (which drives very low layer count), moderate to high-density and mixed-signal...
Speaker  :  
Atar Mittal
Company : 
Sierra Circuits
Signal degradation on PCB transmission lines manifests in many forms: undershoot, overshoot, ringing, pulse shape distortion, switching noise, attenuation, ground bounce, skew, etc. All these can be...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
Differential pairs have been used in PC boards for years to carry high-speed serial and high-speed parallel data, in a variety of bus formats. Many board designers and engineers believe the rules...
This comprehensive seminar of how to design a PCB stackup to optimize performance while attaining the lowest cost possible. With the advent of very high-speed signaling along with multiple very...
Speaker  :  
Daniel J. Smith
Company : 
Raytheon SAS
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
This half-day course is an overview (past, present, and future) of the interactions of processes, people and technologies involved in the complete lifecycle of a PCB design. This course is designed...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
This session is intended for board designers to understand the things RF engineers request during PCB layout. Experienced RF engineers will likely not learn anything new from this course, as the...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates,
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
What is a wire? At high speeds, it behaves very differently from what we were taught in college. This presentation on high-speed basics makes the subject intuitive in a way that’s easily understood....
Speaker  :  
Ralf Bruening
Company : 
Zuken
Supply voltages decrease with every new silicon generation, contributing as well to the goal of reducing power consumption of our electronics. Coupled with the resulting shrinking noise margins for...
Speaker  :  
Dan Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
This presentation will present a simple EM physics and geometry-based approach to designing power distribution networks on PCBs. From input power connection to the IC die, the simple rules discussed...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
When time-varying (AC) signals travel in the transmission lines of a board, state-changing electric and magnetic fields are present. These fields, when not controlled, are the source of noise and...
Speaker  :  
Vern Solberg
Company : 
Solberg Technical Consulting
Topics covered: 1. BGA/CSP process technologies and standards; single die BGA and FBGA packaging, flip-chip and die-size package technologies, wafer level packaging (WLP), fan-out wafer-level...
Speaker  :  
Susy Webb
Company : 
Design Science
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
When designing a PCB, the signal routing and its return are critical to the circuit working properly. Great care is usually given to routing the signals, but often the return portion is the last...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
How do you design a high-speed digital circuit with enough bypass caps in the right area to supply all the peak power demands? You can’t listen to all the expert advice because it seems they can’t...
Speaker  :  
Jamie Pacamarra
Company : 
Analog Devices
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
When signals start to get affected by the physical characteristics of the PCB, things start to get a little tricky. A simple point-to-point connection won’t be enough to keep the integrity of the...
Speaker  :  
John Coonrod
Company : 
Rogers Corp.
Understanding millimeter-wave (mmWave) concepts can benefit RF designers, high-speed digital circuit designers and fabricators. In the RF industry, as frequency increases many circuit properties...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
The material presented will be focused on the physics of electromagnetic energy basic principles, presented in easy-to-understand language with plenty of diagrams. Attendees will discover how...
Speaker  :  
Eric Bogatin
Company : 
Teledyne LeCroy
A differential pair is any two transmission lines. When each transmission line has a return plane, its pretty clear how the differential impedance is related to the geometry. But what if there is no...
Speaker  :  
Elizabeth Bustamante
Company : 
SnapEDA
When creating libraries, standards are crucial for maintaining consistency, accuracy, and reliability. Yet, even with rigid standards in place, mistakes inevitably creep into such a detail-oriented...
Speaker  :  
Bill Hargin
Company : 
Z-zero
The objective of this tutorial is to guide design teams through the process of evaluating and selecting the right laminate for a design, creating PCB stackups that meet the requirements of complex,...
Speaker  :  
Rick Hartley
Company : 
RHartley Enterprises
As most engineers and designers are aware, EMI occurs because some mechanical structure, within or attached to our system, is capable of resonating and radiating electromagnetic field energy. Those...
Speaker  :  
Keven Coates
Company : 
Geospace Technologies
Have you ever had a noise-sensitive circuit and tried to find the noise source? Even after you completely encased sensitive portions in all sorts of shielding, you still had noise? It’s very...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
Raise the shields, Scotty! Starting with some simple definitions for ESD/EOS, this session describes the important differences in the energy involved and the type of damage that can result. The...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
A step-by-step guideline for determining the PCB design requirements based on device energy consumption requirements. Wave cycle times and transmission line capacity form the basis of this...
Speaker  :  
Susy Webb
Company : 
Design Science
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
There are many ways to route a PCB, some much more effective for signals than others. The first design rule is that the board must work properly, so it is important to have a plan that addresses...
Speaker  :  
Paul Cooke
Company : 
AGC-Nelco Taconic
This course will address advanced problem solving of printed wiring board defects. Some defects, such as interconnect separation, delamination, wedge voids, plating folds, micro-voids, surface...
Speaker  :  
Eric Bogatin
Company : 
Teledyne LeCroy
Some experts say you should never use a split ground plane. Others say you should use a split ground plane to control noise. When is the right time to split a ground plane? We will explore the...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
Tired of failing EMC certification over and over? Join the crowd. Shrinking IC geometries and a resulting increase in switching speeds make designing compliant printed circuit boards more...
Speaker  :  
Phil Zarrow
Company : 
ITM Consulting
This course is intended to provide the participant an understanding of how design issues interact with the SMT assembly processes. How design affects manufacturing capability and vice versa is...
With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal...
Speaker  :  
Michael Ford, and Hemant Shah
Company : 
Aegis Software, Cadence
The new IPC Digital Twin standard (IPC-2551) defines an interoperable framework in which thousands of applications from multiple sources work seamlessly together, providing the opportunity for...
Speaker  :  
Benjamin Jordan
This is a session for embedded engineers and PCB designers who have never done RF board layout but are curious and want to have a go at it. It is not for experienced microwave engineers. This...
Speaker  :  
Susy Webb
Company : 
Design Science
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
Technical sessions at conferences often emphasize the latest techniques and technologies, but those classes are often too in-depth for a novice designer, and don’t speak to the questions from the...
Speaker  :  
Fumiyasu Ohbuchi
Company : 
Siemens
With an estimated 80,000 SMTP lines in use standards are a lifeline for line operators and equipment and software developers worldwide. SEMI is developing a suite of standards for SMT and PCBA...
Speaker  :  
Daniel J. Smith
Company : 
Raytheon SAS
Skill Level : 
Audience: 
This half-day course is an overview (past, present, and future) of the interactions of processes, people and technologies involved in the complete lifecycle of a PCB design. This course is designed...
Speaker  :  
John Coonrod
Company : 
Rogers Corp.
Understanding millimeter-wave (mmWave) concepts can benefit RF designers, high-speed digital circuit designers and fabricators. In the RF industry, as frequency increases many circuit properties...
Speaker  :  
Daniel Beeker
Company : 
NXP Semiconductor
Raise the shields, Scotty! Starting with some simple definitions for ESD/EOS, this session describes the important differences in the energy involved and the type of damage that can result. The...
Speaker  :  
Paul Cooke
Company : 
AGC-Nelco Taconic
This course will address advanced problem solving of printed wiring board defects. Some defects, such as interconnect separation, delamination, wedge voids, plating folds, micro-voids, surface...
With the advent of ICs with multiple power rails at very high currents, the design of the power delivery system in a modern product is often more difficult than routing the PCB to ensure good signal...
Speaker  :  
Michael Ford, and Hemant Shah
Company : 
Aegis Software, Cadence
The new IPC Digital Twin standard (IPC-2551) defines an interoperable framework in which thousands of applications from multiple sources work seamlessly together, providing the opportunity for...

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